# Regular Expressions in Python¶

## Introduction¶

If there’s one thing that humans do well, it’s pattern matching. You can categorize the numbers in the following list with barely any thought:

321-40-0909
302-555-8754
3-15-66
95135-0448

You can tell at a glance which of the following words can’t possibly be valid English words by the pattern of consonants and vowels:

grunion vortenal pskov trebular elibm talus

Regular expressions are Python’s method of letting your program look for patterns:

• A fraction is a series of digits followed by a slash, followed by another series of digits.
• A valid name consists of a series of letters, a comma followed by zero or more spaces, followed by another series of letters.

## The Simplest Patterns¶

To use regular expressions in python, you must import the regular expression module with import re. The simplest pattern to look for is a single letter. If you want to see if a variable word contains the letter e, for example, you can use this code:

The pattern is a string preceded by the letter r, which tells Python to interpet the string as a regular expression.

Of course, you can put more than one letter in your pattern. You can look for the word eat anywhere in a word. This example uses a function that is called repeatedly for a series of words.

This will successfully match the words eat, heater, and treat, but won’t match easy, metal, or hat. You may be saying, “So what? I can do the same thing with the find() string function.” Yes, you can, but now let’s do something that isn’t so easy to do with find():

## Matching any single character¶

Let’s make a pattern that will match the letter e followed by any character at all, followed by the letter t. To say “any character at all”, you use a dot. Here’s the pattern:

This will match better, either, and best (the dot will match the t, i, and s in those words). It will not match beast (two letters between the e and t), etch (no letters between the e and t), or ease (no letter t at all!).

### Matching classes of characters¶

Now let’s find out how to narrow down the field a bit. We’d like to be able to find a pattern consisting of the letter b, any vowel (a, e, i, o, or u), followed by the letter t. To say “any one of a certain series of characters”, you enclose them in square brackets:

This matches words like bat, bet, rabbit, robotic, and abutment. It won’t match boot or beautiful, because there is more than one letter between the b and t, and the class matches only a single character. (You’ll see how to check for multiple vowels later.)

There are abbreviations for establishing a series of letters: [a-f] is the same as [abcdef]; [A-Gm-p] is the same as [ABCDEFGmnop]; [0-9] matches a single digit (same as [0123456789]).

You may also complement (negate) a class; the next two patterns will look for the letter e followed by anything except a vowel, followed by the letter t; or any character except a capital letter:

r'e[^aeiou]t'
r'[^A-Z]'

There are some classes that are so useful that Python provides quick and easy abbrevations:

Abbreviation Means Same as
\d a digit [0-9]
\w a “word” character; uppercase letter, lowercase letter, digit, or underscore [A-Za-z0-9_]
\s a whitespace character (blank, new line, tab) [ \r\t\n]
And their complements:
\D a non-digit [^0-9]
\W a non-word character [^A-Za-z0-9_]
\S a non-whitespace character [^ \r\t\n]

Thus, this pattern: \d\d\d-\d\d-\d\d\d\d matches a Social Security number; again, you’ll see a shorter way later on.

## Anchors¶

All the patterns youe’ve seen so far will find a match anywhere within a string, which is usually - but not always - what you want. For example, you might insist on a capital letter, but only as the very first character in the string. Or, you might say that an employee ID number has to end with a digit. Or, you might want to find the word go only if it is at the beginning of a word, so that you will find it in You met another, and pfft you was gone., but you won’t mistakenly find it in I forgot my umbrella. This is the purpose of an anchor; to make sure that you are at a certain boundary before you continue the match. Unlike character classes, which match individual characters in a string, these anchors do not match any character; they simply establish that you are on the correct boundaries.

The up-arrow ^ matches the beginning of a line, and the dollar sign $matches the end of a line. Thus, ^[A-Z] matches a capital letter at the beginning of the line. Note that if you put the ^ inside the square brackets, that would mean something entirely different! A pattern \d$ matches a digit at the end of a line. These are the boundaries you will use most often.

The other two anchors are \b and \B, which stand for a “word boundary” and “non-word boundary”. For example, if you want to find the word met at the beginning of a word, we write the pattern r'\bmet', which will match The metal plate and The metropolitan lifestyle, but not Wear your bike helmet. The pattern r'ing\b' will match Hiking is fun and Reading, writing, and arithmetic, but not Gold ingots are heavy. Finally,the pattern r'\bhat\b' matches only the The hat is red but not That is the question or she hates anchovies or the shattered glass.

While \b is used to find the breakpoint between words and non-words, \B finds pairs of letters or nonletters; \Bmet and ing\b match the opposite examples of the preceding paragraph; \Bhat\B matches only the shattered glass.

## Repetition¶

All of these classes match only one character; what if we want to match three digits in a row, or an arbitrary number of vowels? You can follow any class or character by a repetition count:

Pattern Matches
r'b[aeiou]{2}t' b followed by two vowels, followed by t
r'A\d{3,}' The letter A followed by 3 or more digits
r'[A-Z]{,5}' Zero to five capital letters
r'\w{3,7}' Three to seven “word” characters

This lets you rewrite the social security number pattern match as r'\d{3}-\d{2}-\d{4}'

There are three repetitions that are so common that Python has special symbols for them: * means “zero or more,” + means “one or more,” and ? means “zero or one.” Thus, if you want to look for lines consisting of last names followed by a first initial, you could use this pattern:

Let’s analyze that pattern by parts:

• ^ starting at the beginning of the string,
• \w+ look for one or more word characters
• ,? followed by an optional comma (zero or one commas)
• \s* zero or more spaces
• [A-Z] and a capital letter
• $which must be at the end of the string. ## Grouping¶ So far so good, but what if you want to scan for a last name, followed by an optional comma-whitespace-initial; thus matching only a last name like “Smith” or a full “Smith, J”? You need to put the comma, whitespace, and initial into a unit with parentheses, and then follow it with a ? to indicate that the whole group is optional. Note: If you want to match a parenthesis in your pattern, you have to precede it with a backslash to make it non-special. ## Modifiers¶ If you want a pattern match to be case-insenstive, add the flags=re.I to the search() call. (The I stands for IGNORECASE, which you may also spell out completely if you wish. The following example shows a pattern that will match any Canadian postal code in upper or lower case. Canadian postal codes consist of a letter, a digit, and another letter, followed by a space, a digit, a letter, and another digit. An example of a valid postal code would be A5B 6R9. Here is what the code looks like; it does not work in ActiveCode, but will work fine in IDLE. import re def valid_postcode(in_str): found = re.search(r'^[A-Z]\d[A-Z]\s+\d[A-Z]\d$', in_str, flags=re.I)
if found:
print(in_str, 'is a valid postal code')
else:
print(in_str, 'is not a valid postal code.')

valid_postcode('A5B 6R9')
valid_postcode('c7H 8j2')

At this point, you know pretty much everything you need to test whether a string matches a particular pattern.

## Advanced Pattern Matching¶

All you have done so far is testing to see whether a pattern matches or not. Now that you can match a person’s last name and initial, you might want to be able to grab them out of the string so that you can change Martinez, A to A. Martinez. To accomplish this, you will need something other than search(); you will need the sub() method to do substitution. You will also have to use the grouping parentheses, which have a side effect: whenever you use parentheses to group something, the pattern matching operation stores the part of the string that matched the group so that you can use it later on.

It is now time to reveal a secret: the return value from search() is not a boolean; it is a matching object that has special properties that you can examine and use. In the following example, we have put parentheses around the “last name” part of the pattern as well as the “comma and initial” part. If there is a match, the program will display whatever was found in the grouping parentheses. The vertical bars are in the print() so that you can see where there are blanks (if any).

In the preceding code, found is the match object produced by the search() method. The found.group(0) method calls contains everything matched by the entire pattern. found.group(1) contains the part of the string that the first set of grouping parentheses matched–the last name, and found.group(2) contains the part of the string matched by the second set of grouping parentheses–the comma and initial, if any. If the pattern had more groups of parentheses, you would use .group(3), .group(4), and so forth.

If you look at the output from Smith, J you’ll see that the second set of grouping parentheses doesn’t give you quite what you want. The group stores the entire matched substring, which includes the comma. You’d like to store only the initial. You can do this two ways. First, you can include yet another set of parentheses:

If you do it this way, then the capital letter is stored in found.group(3) and the entire comma-and-initial is stored in found.group(2).

The other way to do this is to say that the outer parentheses should group but not store the matched portion in the result array. You do that with a question mark and colon right after the outer parentheses.

In this case, the initial is in found.group(2), since the outer set of open parentheses doesn’t get stored. As you can see, patterns can very quickly become difficult to read, so let’s break this into parts:

• ^ at the start of the string,
• (\w+) look for (and remember) one or more “word” characters
• (?: start a non-storing group which consists of:
• ,? an optional comma
• \s* zero or more spaces
• ([A-Z]) and a capital letter, which is remembered because it is in parentheses
• )? this ends the non-storing group; the question mark means it is all optional
• $at which point we must be at the end of the string. Now that you know how to extract the last name and initial, you are in a position to use sub() to swap their positions. The re.sub() method takes three arguments: • A pattern to search for • A replacement pattern • The string to search in So, re.sub(r'-\d{4}', r'-XXXX', '301-22-0109') will replace the last four digits of a Social Security number by Xes. This example does not work in ActiveCode (since re.sub() is not implemented), but it will work in IDLE. import re result = re.sub(r'-\d{4}', r'-XXXX', '301-22-0109') print(result) If you are using grouping, you can use \1 and \2 in the replacement pattern to stand for the first and second matched groups. This is how you can write a program that will change names like “Gonzales, M” to “M. Gonzales”; in the following example, the comma and initial are not optional. import re def swap_name(in_str): result = re.sub(r'^(\w+),?\s*([A-Z])$', r'\2. \1', in_str )
return result

print(swap_name('Smith, J'))
print(swap_name('Joe-Bob Smythe-Fauntleroy'))
print(swap_name('Madonna'))
print(swap_name('Gonzales M'))

If you run the preceding program in IDLE, you will see that if the pattern does not match, re.sub() returns a copy of the input string, untouched..

Finally, another example with groups. Say you want to match a phone number and find the area code, prefix, and number. In this case, rather than doing a substitution, we return a list with the relevant information, or a list of three empty strings if the input is not valid. Note that when you want to match to a real parenthesis, you have to precede it with a backslash to make it “not part of a group.” You can do it this way:

Again, let’s break apart that pattern:

• $$look for a real open parenthesis • (\d{3}) followed by three digits (and store them) •$$ and a real closing parenthesis
• \s* followed by zero or more spaces
• (\d{3}) three digits (store them)
• - a dash
• (\d{4}) and four more digits (store them)

## Finding All Occurrences¶

The re.search() method finds only the first occurrence of a pattern within a string. If you want to find all the matches in a string, use re.findall(), which returns a list of matched substrings. (Unlike re.search(), which returns match objects.) Here is a pattern that finds a capital letter followed by an optional dash and a single digit:

r'([A-Z]-?\d)'

Let’s match to find all the occurrences of this pattern in the following string:

'Insert tabs B3, D-7, and C6 into slot A9.'

## Conclusion¶

This tutorial has shown you some of the main points of pattern matching. To learn all the ins and outs of regular expressions, see the Python documentation

Once you learn regular expressions, you will be able to use them in many text editors. For example, the “Replace” and “Find” dialogs in IDLE have a checkbox that let you use regular expressions to find and replace text.