PSYCH 018 Index > Proofreading Symbols

Proofreading Symbols

In addition to the proofreading symbols in the APA manual, I will use the following symbols to point out grammar and spelling errors in your papers. These symbols are derived from the list at

abbrdon’t use abbreviation, or incorrect abbreviation.
agrerror in grammatical agreement
awkawkward expression (ungrammatical, unclear, misworded, etc.)
AUXauxiliary verb missing or incorrect
cscomma splice (clauses connected by a comma without conjunction)
conjconjunction wrong or missing
DOdirect object missing or incorrect
fragsentence fragment; incomplete clause
gramgeneral grammar error
IOindirect object missing or incorrect
modmisplaced modifier
parparallel, consistent grammar structures needed
preppreposition wrong or missing
prnwrong pronoun
punctpunctuation wrong or missing
refincorrect pronoun reference
run-on, rorun-on (fused) sentence
shiftshift in verb tense
spspelling error
SUBJsentence subject unclear, incorrect, double, or missing
tense, vtverb tense wrong
wcincorrect or awkward word choice